School of Economics and Management
Beihang University
http://yanfei.site

## Objectives

• Overview of R
• R nuts and bolts
• Getting data in and out of R
• Subsetting R objects

## What is R?

• A freely available language and environment
• Statistical computing and graphics
• Linear and nonlinear modelling, statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, clustering, etc.

## Installation

Why Rstudio?

• Syntax highlighting
• Able to evaluate R code
• by line
• by selection
• entire file
• Command auto-completion

## Design of the R System

• When you download R from CRAN, you get the "base" system - a substantial amount of functionality.
• 10,000 packages on CRAN that have been developed by users and programmers around the world.

• People often make packages available on their personal websites.
• There are a number of packages being developed on repositories like GitHub and BitBucket.

## Basic Operations

1 + 2 + 3
##  6
1 + 2 * 3
##  7

x <- 1
y <- 2
z <- c(x, y)
z
##  1 2

exp(1)
##  2.718282
cos(3.141593)
##  -1
log2(1)
##  0

## R Objects

R has five basic classes of objects:

1. character
2. numeric (real numbers)
3. integer
4. complex
5. logical (True/False)

## Numbers

• Numbers in R are generally treated as numeric objects.
• Difference of 1 and 1L?
• Special number Inf. Try 1/Inf.
• NaN: an undefined value (not a number). Try 0/0. It can also be thought of as a missing value.

## Attributes

Attributes can be accessed by attributes(). Some examples of R object attributes are:

• names, dimnames
• dimensions (e.g. matrices, arrays)
• class (e.g. integer, numeric)
• length

## Vectors

The c() function can be used to create vectors of objects by concatenating things together.

x <- c(0.5, 0.6)  ## numeric
x <- c(TRUE, FALSE)  ## logical
x <- c(T, F)  ## logical
x <- c("a", "b", "c")  ## character
x <- 9:29  ## integer
x <- c(1 + (0+0i), 2 + (0+4i))  ## complex

You can also use the vector() function to initialize vectors.

x <- vector("numeric", length = 10)
x
##   0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

## Matrices

m <- matrix(c(1:6), 2, 3)
attributes(m)
## $dim ##  2 3 dim(m) ##  2 3 t(m) ## [,1] [,2] ## [1,] 1 2 ## [2,] 3 4 ## [3,] 5 6 m[1, 2] ##  3 m[1, ] ##  1 3 5 n <- matrix(c(8:13), 2, 3) cbind(m, n) ## [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] ## [1,] 1 3 5 8 10 12 ## [2,] 2 4 6 9 11 13 rbind(m, n) ## [,1] [,2] [,3] ## [1,] 1 3 5 ## [2,] 2 4 6 ## [3,] 8 10 12 ## [4,] 9 11 13 ## Lists • Special data structure that matrix could not handle. • Data length are not the same. • Data type are not the same. l <- list(a = c(1, 2), b = "apple") attributes(l) ##$names
##  "a" "b"

## Factors

Factors are used to represent categorical data.

f <- factor(c("yes", "yes", "no", "yes", "no"))
attributes(f)
## $levels ##  "no" "yes" ## ##$class
##  "factor"

## Data Frames

• A special type of list.
• Unlike matrices – data frames can store different classes of objects in each column.
• They have column names and row names.
d <- data.frame(x = 1:10, y = letters[1:10])
attributes(d)
## $names ##  "x" "y" ## ##$class
##  "data.frame"
##
## $row.names ##  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 names(d) ##  "x" "y" row.names(d) ##  "1" "2" "3" "4" "5" "6" "7" "8" "9" "10" ## Names Names are very useful for writing readable code and self-describing objects. x <- 1:3 names(x) ## NULL names(x) <- c("New York", "Seattle", "Los Angeles") x ## New York Seattle Los Angeles ## 1 2 3 names(x) ##  "New York" "Seattle" "Los Angeles" Lists can also have names, which is often very useful. x <- list(Los Angeles = 1, Boston = 2, London = 3) x ##$Los Angeles
##  1
##
## $Boston ##  2 ## ##$London
##  3
names(x)
##  "Los Angeles" "Boston"      "London"

## Getting Data in and out of R

There are a few principal functions reading data into R.

• read.table, read.csv, for reading tabular data
• readLines, for reading lines of a text file
• source, for reading in R code files (inverse of dump)
• dget, for reading in R code files (inverse of dput)
• load, for reading in saved workspaces

There are analogous functions for writing data to files.

• write.table, for writing tabular data to text files (i.e. CSV) or connections
• writeLines, for writing character data line-by-line to a file or connection
• dump, for dumping a textual representation of multiple R objects
• dput, for outputting a textual representation of an R object
• save, for saving an arbitrary number of R objects in binary format (possibly compressed) to a files

There are many R packages that have been developed to read in all kinds of other datasets (e.g., the readr package).

## How to Subset?

There are three operators that can be used to extract subsets of R objects.

• The [ operator always returns an object of the same class as the original. It can be used to select multiple elements of an object

• The [[ operator is used to extract elements of a list or a data frame. It can only be used to extract a single element and the class of the returned object will not necessarily be a list or data frame.

• The $ operator is used to extract elements of a list or data frame by literal name. Its semantics are similar to that of [[. ## Subsetting a Vector Vectors are basic objects in R and they can be subsetted using the [ operator. x <- c("a", "b", "c", "c", "d", "a") x ## Extract the first element ##  "a" x ## Extract the second element ##  "b" The [ operator can be used to extract multiple elements of a vector by passing the operator an integer sequence. Here we extract the first four elements of the vector. x[1:4] ##  "a" "b" "c" "c" x[c(1, 3, 4)] ##  "a" "c" "c" x[x > 2] ##  "a" "b" "c" "c" "d" "a" ## Subsetting a Matrix Matrices can be subsetted in the usual way with (i,j) type indices. x <- matrix(1:6, 2, 3) x ## [,1] [,2] [,3] ## [1,] 1 3 5 ## [2,] 2 4 6 We can access the $$(1,2)$$ or the $$(2,1)$$ element of this matrix using the appropriate indices. x[1, 2] ##  3 x[2, 1] ##  2 Indices can also be missing. This behavior is used to access entire rows or columns of a matrix. x[1, ] ## Extract the first row ##  1 3 5 x[, 2] ## Extract the second column ##  3 4 ## Subsetting Lists ists in R can be subsetted using all three of the operators mentioned above, and all three are used for different purposes. x <- list(foo = 1:4, bar = 0.6) x ##$foo
##  1 2 3 4
##
## $bar ##  0.6 The [[ operator can be used to extract single elements from a list. Here we extract the first element of the list. x[] ##  1 2 3 4 The [[ operator can also use named indices so that you don't have to remember the exact ordering of every element of the list. You can also use the $ operator to extract elements by name.

x[["bar"]]
##  0.6
x$bar ##  0.6 ## Subsetting Nested Elements of a List The [[ operator can take an integer sequence if you want to extract a nested element of a list. x <- list(a = list(10, 12, 14), b = c(3.14, 2.81)) ## Get the 3rd element of the 1st element x[[c(1, 3)]] ##  14 ## Same as above x[][] ##  14 ## 1st element of the 2nd element x[[c(2, 1)]] ##  3.14 ## Extracting Multiple Elements of a List The [ operator can be used to extract multiple elements from a list. For example, if you wanted to extract the first and third elements of a list, you would do the following x <- list(foo = 1:4, bar = 0.6, baz = "hello") x[c(1, 3)] ##$foo
##  1 2 3 4
##
## \$baz
##  "hello"

Note that x[c(1, 3)] is NOT the same as x[[c(1, 3)]].

Remember that the [ operator always returns an object of the same class as the original. Since the original object was a list, the [ operator returns a list. In the above code, we returned a list with two elements (the first and the third).

## Removing NA Values

A common task in data analysis is removing missing values (NAs).

x <- c(1, 2, NA, 4, NA, 5)
##  FALSE FALSE  TRUE FALSE  TRUE FALSE
##  1 2 4 5

What if there are multiple R objects and you want to take the subset with no missing values in any of those objects?

head(airquality)
##   Ozone Solar.R Wind Temp Month Day
## 1    41     190  7.4   67     5   1
## 2    36     118  8.0   72     5   2
## 3    12     149 12.6   74     5   3
## 4    18     313 11.5   62     5   4
## 5    NA      NA 14.3   56     5   5
## 6    28      NA 14.9   66     5   6
good <- complete.cases(airquality)
##   Ozone Solar.R Wind Temp Month Day
## 1    41     190  7.4   67     5   1
## 2    36     118  8.0   72     5   2
## 3    12     149 12.6   74     5   3
## 4    18     313 11.5   62     5   4
## 7    23     299  8.6   65     5   7
## 8    19      99 13.8   59     5   8

## Review of this lecture

• Overview of R
• R nuts and bolts
• Getting data in and out of R
• Subsetting R objects

## Read and Write Data in R

You'll be working with swimming_pools.csv; it contains data on swimming pools in Brisbane, Australia (Source: data.gov.au). The file contains the column names in the first row. It uses a comma to separate values within rows.

1. Try read.csv() and read.table() to import "swimming_pools.csv" as a data frame with the name pools.
2. Try write.table(), dput(), and save() functions to write pools to files.